This article describes thehistory of Quebec City as a complement to the main article on Quebec City.
Quebec City was founded by Samuel de Champlain on , under the wing of Pierre Dugua de Mons, on a site near an ancient Iroquoian village called Stadaconé. This is the cradle of La Francophonie in North America. At the dawn of XVIIand century, the current site of Quebec City was then only visited by Algonquin nomads and was the place where the river narrows. The place seemed conducive to the establishment of a permanent colony that would develop around the Place Royale.
At the end of the French Regime, the territory of what is now Quebec City forms a landscape of striking contrasts. Woodlands, villages, cultivated fields and pastures surround the town of 8,000 inhabitants. It stands out for its monumental architecture, its fortifications (unique in North America), its muddy and unsanitary streets, its rich masonry houses and its shacks in the Saint-Jean and Saint-Roch suburbs. Despite its urbanity and its status as a capital, Québec remains a small colonial city closely linked to the hinterland. The inhabitants come there to buy goods from France and sell their agricultural surpluses and firewood at the two town markets.
The War of Conquest and the Seven Years’ War[modifier | modifier le code]
See main articles: War of Conquest and Seven Years’ War.
In June 1759, an imposing British fleet, which served under the command of General James Wolfe, to the detriment of the French army led by General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm in the context of the Seven Years’ War, dropped anchor near of Quebec. The whole territory is on high alert. The coast of Beauport, where the French await a landing, is fortified. As the Marquis de Montcalm seems to want to stay on his positions there, General Wolfe decides to bombard the city in order to break the morale of the French troops.
The evening of the bombardment begins in a very intense way and makes life difficult for the inhabitants of the city.
Following a French victory on the right bank of the Montmorency, the commander of the British forces, James Wolfe, tried everything: on September 13, his troops landed at Anse-au-Foulon. They climb the cliff, occupy the heights of the Plains of Abraham and win a decisive victory over the French army. Five days later, the capital of New France capitulated. Two months of bombardment left the city center devastated (nearly 80% of the city is in ruins).
In April 1760, Marshal de Lévis won the Battle of Sainte-Foy. However, the arrival of British reinforcements forced the French army to withdraw to Montreal, which in turn capitulated in September 1760. Three years later, most of the French possessions in North America were ceded to Great Britain .
During the American War of Independence, the British garrison in Quebec City was attacked by American troops, the “Bastonnais” (name given to American rebels). It is on the night of the 30 to that Generals Montgomery and Arnold attempted an assault on Lower Town which proved unsuccessful during the Battle of Quebec. Montgomery will leave his life there. The Americans had to quickly evacuate the territory in June 1776. Canada would then remain British.
the Major-General Isaac Brock fortified the city by reinforcing its walls and raising an artillery battery just before the War of 1812.
In 1832 theAct to incorporate the City of Quebec allows the establishment of a municipal government and the appearance of the function of mayor of Quebec.
Quebec City was the capital of Canada from 1859 to 1865, the penultimate city to be before its final transfer to Ottawa. The Quebec Conference (1864) on Canadian confederation was held there.
During the XIXand century, many major fires shook the city, including the fires of the summer of 1845 and the Great Fire of Quebec, that of .
In 1917, the construction of the Quebec Bridge, linking Quebec on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River to its south shore, was completed. It is the longest cantilever structure bridge in the world. During construction, two collapses of the central span of the bridge will cost the lives of more than 80 workers.
In the spring of 1918, demonstrations against conscription degenerated into several days of riots. Sent as reinforcements, the army fired on the crowd and left four dead. The riot of 1918 remains the most violent of those known to the city of Quebec (see Quebec, Spring 1918).
During the Second World War, two inter-allied conferences were held in Quebec. The first brought together in 1943 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States; Winston Churchill, British Prime Minister; William Lyon Mackenzie King, Prime Minister of Canada and TV Soong, Foreign Minister of China. The second was held in 1944; Churchill and Roosevelt took part in it. They were held at the Citadelle of Quebec and at the nearby Château Frontenac.
The 1er and it was in Quebec that the International Association of Francophone Mayors (AIMF) was created by the former mayor of Quebec, Jean Pelletier and that of Paris.
In 1984, festivities were held to celebrate the 450and anniversary of the discovery of Canada by Jacques Cartier. It was on this occasion that the Old Port was restored.
It was in 1984, in Quebec, that the organization Opération Nez rouge was created by Jean-Marie De Koninck. Opération Nez-Rouge is now known throughout Quebec; its formula was taken up across Canada and in some European countries.
The historic district of Old Quebec was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.
Québec remains the only city in North America to have preserved its ramparts, which include the many bastions, gates and defensive structures still surrounding Old Québec. The Upper Town, located at the top of the cliff, a religious and administrative center, with its churches, convents and other monuments such as the Dauphine redoubt, the Citadel and the Château Frontenac, and the Lower Town, with its old quarters, form an urban ensemble which is one of the best examples of a fortified colonial city.
In the summer of 1985, Charlesbourg hosted the Quebec Games.
In September 1987, the second summit conference of La Francophonie took place in Quebec City.
In 1995, it was in Quebec that the 50and anniversary of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) since the organization was founded on site in 1945. Place FAO in Lower Town Quebec is celebrating its fiftieth anniversary near Place Royale.
In 1996 it was the turn of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
In 1999, the Conference of Parliamentarians of the Americas was held.
In April 2001, Quebec City hosted the Summit of the Americas to discuss the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA). The conference was marked by major clashes between police forces and anti-globalization groups as well as the decision to wall off part of the city around the conference venue for security reasons.
Since following a municipal merger, the “new City of Quebec” brings together 11 former municipalities, namely Sainte-Foy, Beauport, Charlesbourg, Sillery, Loretteville, Val-Bélair, Cap-Rouge, Saint-Émile, Vanier, Lac -Saint-Charles and the old city of Quebec.
In 2005, the Capitale-Nationale was host to the second largest international sporting event in the world after the Olympic Games in terms of the number of participants, namely the World Police and Fire Games, which were a success all along the line, especially in terms of participation (11,000 athletes and 14,000 companions, or 25,000 people in total).
In 2006, Quebec City hosted the 2006 Quebec Alpine Junior World Championships.
the as he prepared to celebrate his 75and anniversary of existence, the oldest zoo in Canada, the zoological garden of Quebec, closes its doors by government decree.
In 2008, we celebrate the 400th anniversary of Quebec.